Building a Debris Hut

If you were ever forced to bug out and survive in the middle of winter, knowing how to stay warm and dry in chilling rain or subfreezing temps is a must.

And what if you had to do that without bedding, fire, or a blanket. Would you still be able to stay warm and dry?

Since my brother was in town for the Thanksgiving holiday we decided to see how one of my favorite survival shelters — a debris hut — would fare on an overnight in some cold weather.

The evening we did the test was going to be in the low 20s (Fahrenheit) so it was a great night to test the shelter out: Will a debris hut keep me warm on subfreezing temps without the need of a fire or sleeping bag?

My results are at the end of this post.

But first, a little more about the debris hut and how you can build your own…

Debris Hut History

The basic purpose of a debris hut is to provide a cocoon of insulation and warmth — much like a sleeping bag.

I actually learned this shelter from its inventor, Tom Brown Jr. in one of his survival classes years ago and since that time I’ve had the opportunity to test it on multiple occasions in the Spring, Summer and Fall — comfortably sleeping without the need of a sleeping bag or a fire to stay warm and dry.

However, I’ve never tried this out in colder temps below freezing. So this cold-weather test is a long time coming for me.

The great advantage of this shelter over, say, a lean-to or other shelter is if built right, it doesn’t require you to have a sleeping bag, blanket, or a fire. It is built to be entirely self-sufficient as an insulator and shelter from the elements.

If you live in the Northeast like I do, or another area with lots of debris/woods, this shelter is an excellent one to have in your mental toolkit.

How to Build a Debris Hut

Building a debris hut is actually a fairly simple process. If you live in an area with woods and debris then you’ll have everything you need to build one of these shelters. The key is, you should be able to find all your materials off of the ground.

In other words you want dead materials.

You don’t want to start cutting down perfectly live trees for this not to mention that being a waste of energy.

Here’s the process:

Step 1: Find an area with lots of debris. As I mentioned before, this shelter is ideal for an area that naturally has a bunch of debris and woods. While this can be built in less than ideal locations, it will be well…less than ideal and take longer to build. Leaves, long grasses, pine-needles, and so on are all excellent for use with this type of shelter.

You’ll even find a good amount of debris under a thin layer of snow:

Step 2: Find a ridge pole almost twice as long as you are high. The straighter the better, however even a crooked one like this will be effective.
Step 3: Prop up the ridge pole. Using two “Y” shaped sticks, the next step is prop up the ridge pole so it sits about crotch height. Be sure you use sturdy sticks (at minimum the size of your wrist) that aren’t brittle or rotting.

It helps to lie under the ridge pole to make sure that there is a descent amount of head and shoulder room to move a little bit at night.


Step 4: Build the framework - Next, using sticks anywhere from two-finger to wrist thickness, create “ribbing” perpendicular along the entire length of the ridge pole.

Step 5: Add “stick debris” to the structure - In this step you want to gather a bunch of stick debris and place it all over the structure.

Step 6: Place debris over the shelter - Gather a whole bunch of debris like leaves, pine needles, long grass etc and pile it on top of and in the shelter.
Step 7: Create a thick bedding - After filling the cavity with debris, climb into the shelter and flatten out the debris on the shelter floor. Repeat this at least 3 times to make a thick comfortable, insulative bedding.
Step 8: Plug up the shelter - When you’re ready to retire for the night, pull in a bunch of leaves with you into the shelter, surrounding yourself with leaves (if it’s really cold) and plugging the entrance — effectively creating a cocoon of leaves.

My Test Results and Observations

Was I able to get through the night without a sleeping bag in 20 degree weather?

Partly.

I actually made it most of the night without the need for anything extra. I hit the sack around 9PM and slept soundly until around 3am. I must have moved too much during the night because the leaves I had on top of me had eventually fallen off and so there was a gap of air above me that was starting chill me.

At that point I grabbed the sleeping bag and slept through the rest of the night.

Would I have been able to survive the night without the bag?

Yes. However it would’ve been uncomfortable.

The issue was I did not have enough leaves on top of the shelter to really contain and hold the heat radiating from my body. There were plenty of leaves below and beside me since my back, bottom and sides were nice and warm. Above me was the issue.

I’m going to try this shelter when we get some colder weather again (right now it’s pretty mild). For the next time though I’ll need to make sure I put twice as much leaves on top.

It’s important that the colder it is, the more debris you have over the shelter. Ideally, from the top of the ridge pole, you want at least one arm’s-length of debris covering it for these colder temps.

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62 Comments»

Comment by Johnny
2012-12-11 01:17:15

I think u guys are great for posting this and sharing these ideas with people I just want to thank you ! What would good ideas for a bug out bag be? That’s not going to break the bank but cover all the items needed to make it through any thing put in the way I have a bug out bag but it seems too heavy but I don’t have the heart to remove items bc I think if I do those will be the ones I need . And also weapons u suggest I have a compound bow a 12g shotgun and a 22lr ar15 I would like to take the bow and the ar but no ideas on how to carry weapons or the bow and ideas? Thank you again I look forward to getting emails from u guys :)

 
Comment by Honora
2012-12-11 01:32:38

Really great to see how this is done. I’ll have to try it out sometime. We tried the firepit technique in 30 degree F weather and that worked.

 
Comment by Susan in TUcson
2012-12-11 01:34:52

Glad you posted this, I will keep it for my kids to try so they get the idea of what they need to do specifically for survival out in the woods.
We live in the Arizona desert, so a lot of our brush and leaves have stickers or spikes, any ideas on how to alleviate those issues?

Comment by gggnotaz
2012-12-12 17:44:41

Sorry Susan, I tried to reply to your comment. It is below

 
 
Comment by George
2012-12-11 02:51:15

In your basic class did you not learn learn the rule of thirds? once the shelter main stick and 2 props are in place put insulative material around the ridge pole and then lay the ribs on. Also pack it into the 2 corners on the ground. It makes it much more comfortable in the cold.And did you forget that the ribs need to be even with the ridge pole and not overlapping as in your pictures. This will make sure that all of the insulation will stay in place better and you will sleep the whole night through.
Good post. More and more people need to know about this.

Comment by aaron wolf
2012-12-18 21:52:26

Hey nice write up, I just uploaded some photos of debris huts I built including a winter debris hut I’ve been staying in here in Indiana. I’ll get around to writing an article soon. See the photos…http://www.acwolf.com/photobooks/gallery/10/debris-huts comments appreciated.
aaron

 
 
Comment by George
2012-12-11 02:55:04

Oh I almost forgot after you get a layer of debris on about 6 inches to a foot put a layer of small sticks and twigs on then another foot of debris. This adds additional dead air space and minimizes how much debris you have to use. And then at the end another layer of sticks and twigs to keep it from blowing away.

 
Comment by chilly bear
2012-12-11 05:01:22

i live in no. calif. and have used debris hut when hunting out in the alps.i’ve woven a blanket out of witches hair (spainish moss) this works better than leaves it doesnt fall off

 
Comment by pambigger
2012-12-11 05:11:28

awesome information and great visual help too. thank you so very much for sharing this important survival tool. “doing the right thing can never be wrong.” keep up the good work!

 
Comment by Kimbra
2012-12-11 06:35:13

any type of “packing” material is a tremendous help as well, eg:mud, snow! At first it will be chilly but as soon as your body heat is in there it will neutralize and become very comfortable. Definitely try this again.

 
Comment by Rita
2012-12-11 07:54:02

I agree-definitely useful, AND a great visual ;)

 
Comment by pat
2012-12-11 08:27:01

great ideal for cool and cold weather. I would not want to try this in the summer time as in our area you will become chigger and tick bait. Also a particulate mask will help those who have allergies to leaf molds.

 
Comment by Arthur
2012-12-11 09:37:42

Very good info. Timewise, how long did it take to construct this?

 
Comment by Deborah
2012-12-11 10:05:21

Chilly bear,
How do you weave a blanket from spanish moss? Your comment so intrigued me that I googled it and all I found was how to break it down to get the fibers inside to spin then weave. I’m pretty sure you’re not doing that in the woods since it takes 6 wks to 6 months to get to the fibers. And, it makes a lot of sense since it wouldn’t blow away like the leaves would. Curious…

 
Comment by Bob
2012-12-11 10:12:39

Tom Brown…the guy you refer to early in this post, is a prince and has been around for a very long time. I have four of his books that I bought when living and working in California in the early 80s (over thirty years ago). I still refer to them. Folks should recognize that a debris hut is “survival” not “club med” and in severe conditions it likely won’t be terribly comfortable; but you’ll still be breathing (though shivering) in the morning when done correctly!

 
Comment by Buck Rivers
2012-12-11 11:01:21

I have been bitten by a brown recluse spider in a shelter of this type.

 
Comment by J.James
2012-12-11 12:07:07

Thanks for the pics on this one!

This type, more or less, is my go-to for the quick and easy shelter. Actually right now I am building a larger wikiup type earth shelter – which is also depicted in Tom Brown’s Field Guide to Living with the Earth – and built one of these in about 15 minutes when it looked like I was going to run out of daylight to build my larger, more permanent shelter.

My tips;

- Lay your bedding first. This will make it much easier than crawling around inside and stuffing it in, possibly knocking down your ribs. I usually make my Nest larger than the inside of the shelter just to be sure, plus, it helps seal the bottom.

- If possible, you can dig a shallow trench – as long as you are tall and 3-6 inches deep is fine – and then lay your bedding in that. It will give you; A deeper layer of material, a place for rainwater to go and a place below your body for cold air to settle. (Of course, you could also dig a deeper hole or use the hole that is left by an uprooted tree to make it a semi-underground shelter, but I think that’s outside the scope of this article.)

- More insulation is always better. When you think you have enough, you are about halfway there. Just make sure your ‘ribbing’ is sturdy.

- George mentioned it above but to expand on his comment; Where I usually go, there is TONS of Rhododendron which is great for bedding and adding to the insulation mix. Adding bundles of twigs in between the layers of leaves creates more dead space = more trapped warm air. Just be sure to cover the sticks with more leaves, otherwise it is wasted.

- Bark and/or moss make a great top layer.

Anyway, those are my little nuggets of wisdom.
As usual, great article, E!

 
Comment by AnnieO
2012-12-11 13:11:15

Thanks for writing this! We are going to try this this winter. Do you think the shelter could be modified to fit 2 and still be as effective?

 
Comment by BMAN
2012-12-11 13:11:25

Erich,
Another great post. the pics are great for explaining everything along the way. I’ve only got one gripe about the article. While I respect him and greatly appreciate alot of what he does and teaches, I believe that saying Tom Brown Jr is the inventor of the debris hut is a bit far reaching. White Mountain Apaches here in Arizona were using similar debris huts for a couple years before Tom Brown Jr or Sr for that matter were ever gracing our presence here on earth. Mr. Brown may have introduced this type of shelter to the modern”survivalist” world but I’d guess that he did not invent it as a shelter.
That said, again, another great article. Still appreciating what your doing here brother!

Comment by Tactical Intelligence
2012-12-22 12:57:32

Hey bman,

Great comment. Yes you are correct. I misspoke in that I called Mr. Brown the inventor of the debris hut. He did learn this from an Apache. What I meant was that he was the one to bring this to the popularity we see today.

 
Comment by Tactical Intelligence
2012-12-22 12:58:32

L

 
 
Comment by BMAN
2012-12-11 15:18:44

I have a copy of this book somewhere and couldn’t remember the original publication date but found it here online:

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28255/28255-h/28255-h.htm

On page 13 there is a version of the debris shelter shown and noted as the “one night” shelter or “scout master”. the books description does not go into the merits of how much debris to add and such but the general idea is there. With a publishing date of 1914, the shelter pre-dates Mr. Brown by nearly 40 years at a minimum.

Comment by Tactical Intelligence
2012-12-22 12:54:34

Hey bman,

The A-frame shelter (which this book describes) is still different from the debris hut — most notably in the size and amount of debris. Debris huts are designed to just fit the occupant inside and to be fully surrounded by debris ( much like a leaf sleeping bag). A-frames are typically much larger and allow for sitting up and movement inside the shelter.

 
 
Comment by teacherman
2012-12-11 17:28:59

I really appreciate the pics. the contrast of the snow really helps to see the build. We rarely get snow where I live so it’s tough to seperate the materials from the background.

 
Comment by Jeff Scism
2012-12-11 21:35:34

Building a winter A-frame ( which is what this is generally called) you usually want to scrape it down to bare ground and build it on the soil. You want to be between the ground and the insulation. If there is SNOW pile a bunch of it on top. That is also insulation. A single candle will heat it if you get it tight to prevent drafts. You do not want it OVERLY warm to prevent dripping. As illustrated you are laying on wet l;eaves and some snow, which just wets you and causes you to get cold soaked. A-Frames are one of the FASTEST shelters to build. BUT you have to have materials on hand and ready to go.

 
Comment by Jeff Scism
2012-12-11 21:39:10

I used to teach arctic survival, and the A-Frame has been a standard shelter for centuries. Probably thousands of years, in forested lands.

 
Comment by William Fagan
2012-12-12 02:48:37

Thanks for the great article. Also, I want to thank all you folks that commented on same and added to the excellent application of this emergency shelter. This could easily save someones life and add to the enjoyment of a planned trip to the wilderness. Thanks again everyone. Rusty

 
Comment by gggnotaz
2012-12-12 17:43:05

Having grown up in Tucson, I’m not sure you are going to find enough debris to do this unless you are on Mt. Lemon. It takes a LOT of leaves to construct one of these shelters correctly.

So if you are in an area where there are enough leaves, I don’t think you will have as many thorny bushes because you will be a different elevation. Make sense?

For the desert floor, maybe if you decimated a bunch of creasote bushes? They will still have a lot of airspace and not provide great insulation I would think.

Fortunately fire building materials are abundant.

 
Comment by iris
2012-12-13 00:34:24

Thanks for the suggestion…not bear proof though. Emergency dwelling but I think I would build a second one inside a hillside or a gully with a roof top if I needed something longer but gullies have meltdowns. I would also suggest that you look for several trees that form a circle or a block. If one could locate such a base with pairs of trees less than a foot apart, one could fill in the space between the two trees with logs, grass and dirt to build a mud house for longer periods with a Debris Hut inside. The smaller the space the warmer the bed. One could also place a Debris Hut inside an igloo. How about a small Debris Hut inside even a larger Debris Hut. Second suggestion, if one had to build a Debris Hut, don’t take your boots off and place the pillow over your heart when you sleep. If the heart is warm the rest of the body is warm enough to survive.
iris
canada

 
Comment by iris
2012-12-13 00:53:19

Adam and Eve beat every one out in copyright issues. I do believe that the Apache, Commanchero, Cree and others, built their leans up in the trees. They would also select pliable trees to bend over in loops to build a hut and pliable branches to weave in and out of the loops. This would allow for more movement. An emergency hut can even be made by bending down the boughs of the pliable evergreen trees and staking them. Plus, the evergreen allows for one to scramble up the tree if need be. The safest, but slowest, method would be the mud hut made by placing logs, branches, leaves, sand, dirt, in between pairs of trees that are strong enough to hold it all in. If one was in a pack of travellers, this type of building can be extended and extended, plus, one can build back to back. I now I owe a lot of aboriginal ways to my Grandfather Lambert Joseph Wigle. It is said that I am part Spanish American/English/French version of a diluted Commanchero/Commache. He even taught me how to get out quicksand and there is none in Canada. But, thanks for ALL the input no matter where or who it comes by.
iris
canada

 
Comment by iris
2012-12-13 01:08:46

If you have do not have an axe then a Debris Hut would do whether in a gully, inside a hill, etc. But, one could fortify whatever was being built with rope, whether they had an axe or not for staking, by making their own cord. This is done by stripping the bark off a pliable branch. You want to harvest the soft inner bark on the other side of the hardened bark that you have pulled away from the branch. You can either braid these strips or you can just loop the ends into a knot then tie.

 
Comment by iris
2012-12-18 17:16:16

Snow would help to keep the leaves in place. Myself, I would make it a little longer, high enough for me to turn from stomache to back (which I do several times in a night) but more importantly, I would allow more room down by the feet and pack that area up with leaves by at least two feet. The feet are far away from the heart and needs that extra stuffing. Also, nature can fool you. Hypothermia sets in and the body heats up to try to help and as it does the person starts to take off their clothes…they get very sleepy, dreamy and euphoreic. Take a therometer and write down the inside heat which would give a more exact conclusion of this experience. In cold, I take a small sleeping bag to place inside a large sleeping bag. The smaller one will need to be aired every day as the body sweats.

Comment by Jake
2012-12-20 15:58:19

I was hoping to hear from someone from much farther north, thank you! For someone like myself who is used to spending at least part of the winter in the northwoods of Minnesota, 20 degrees sounds quite warm! I would be quite confident in my typical snow gear at 20 degrees, but what about -20 or lower when you can expect most everything to freeze in short order? Your idea of layered shelters is exactly what I was looking for – something to knock down the wind before it hits your shelter is going to be paramount in this type of situation. I was thinking through possibly setting up in a small stream bed (typically would be dry in the winter) or other form of gully, but that’s not always available depending on where you’re located. I also hadn’t thought through “bear proofing”, and your idea of having an evergreen available to climb up sounds brilliant (at the very least, it would provide a very adequate defense for wolves). Again, thank you for your perspective!

 
 
Comment by Tammy
2012-12-19 19:10:02

Most excellent information. Definitely helps put it all together with the pics. Thanks!

 
Comment by Edna Wilson
2012-12-20 12:01:51

I am new to prepping…hear about an event in Daytona Beach, close to where I live that is a prep ad gun expo. Anyone know anything about it? Is it good?

Here is the link: http://www.lifechangesbeready.com

 
Comment by tom
2012-12-23 23:07:33

Thanks for sharing your knowledge. I just read it with my 17yr old. ! quesion; Do you have the foot end up on a stump and then another stump blocking it from slipping off? I can’t really make it out.
Thanks again,
From N.Y.

Comment by Tactical Intelligence
2012-12-24 08:48:07

That’s right. There’s two stumps in the pics

 
 
Comment by iris
2013-01-14 12:36:21

I was surfing on Youtube about shelters. Later that nite, I remembered something about two or three men dying from going out unprepared. One young man was mush like the one above building this shelter. It was said that he may have been drinking but I didn’t think so. Drinking keeps the heart and brain active but it also makes one sleepy. He was found with his coat off which means that he had suffered from hypothermia wherein the body gives off so much heat in a desparate attempt to keep the body alive from freezing that it fools a person into thinking that he really is too warm. Taking off mitts, socks and shoes will also increase hypothermia. And, it is a beautiful way to die…very dreamy. I remember hypothermia & my brother kicking me.

 
Comment by iris
2013-01-14 12:41:14

The second part about hypothermia is that the eyelids start to stick to the eyeballs. Someone phoned me once for help about a man treking across the snow possibly in the Artic. He had no glasses with him and he was going “snow blind” meaning that the glare of the sun was hitting the snow and the light was aimed at his irises. My suggestion was that he used his own snot, flowing freely, possibly from hypothermia and glue over one eye. The snot would act as an insolation. Then, after ten to fifteen minutes peel off the snot and place it on the other eye. Repeat this procedure often. Once the eyeballs are heated up. One can snot one eye and pull part of a sleeve over the other with enough room to see. It’s better to have a hood that pulls out as the light shoots up & mite block it.

 
Comment by RamboMoe
2013-01-15 09:13:01

Fantastic article! I have been researching this topic a lot recently, and yours is one of the better articles I have seen. The picture sequence helps so much.

I’m going to include a link back to it in one of my posts on the subject.

Cheers!

 
Comment by iris
2013-01-16 09:44:41

The importance of tinted googles in the “bag” can not be stressed enough. And, remember when you don’t have googles & you start to loose your vision, that you need to pull one eyelid down before applying the snot from your nose (or poo if need be) cover it with cloth from your sleeve or whatever and wrap it around your head or use your hand to save at least one eye. Then alternate. I would also suggest that each person carry one or two stones in their “bag” to warm up water after the stones have been heated by fire. Just make a well in the harden snow and add the stones all at once and you mite have enough water to wash your face & backside.

 
Comment by iris
2013-01-16 09:47:05

A cloth canvas or material should be placed down on the welled out ground first before adding the hot stones and snow. The aboriginals use to do it on thick ice sheets so they could take a bath or cook a meal/tea.

 
Comment by Ted
2013-01-23 03:28:59

If a Wolf Pack started digging in that to get you good bye. A lot of people are getting killed by Feral dogs in packs now that people aren’t automatically shooting stray dogs as the Pioneers did.

 
Comment by Jessica
2013-01-29 02:02:16

Too bad there are no trees where I live. I would be building it out of mesquite twigs and trying to cover it with sand and chollos. :D

 
Comment by John
2013-03-09 12:03:52

Being able to start a fire and build a shelter, are the two most important cold-weather, survival skills you can possess! They will save your life. They saved mine once, while Elk Hunting, in a Colorado Wilderness Area.
I got caught in the worst blizzard I’ve ever been in. It went from a beautiful, crystal-clear morning, to cloudy and snowing, to an absolute BLIZZARD, in a matter of hours! I was in the middle of a wilderness area, at 10,500 feet, with no horse!
The only thing that saved my life, was getting that fire started and building that shelter, to ride out the storm. If going into any wilderness area, always have a couple of Bic Lighters and lots of 550 Survival Cord, in your pocket! They’re worth their weight, in Gold!

Comment by Tactical Intelligence
2013-03-17 20:29:43

Great advice John. thanks!

 
 
Comment by Paul in OZ
2013-03-10 01:56:23

Another good insulator if you have it handy, is to put a few layers of newspaper over the ribs before you load them up, but make sure the floor is good first. News paper also makes a good entrance cover.

 
Comment by D
2013-03-10 04:26:24

if u dig a trench before u place ur bedding down u will make ur self more leg and arm room. not to mention the lil critters that live below the snow and debris. u will want to clear them out before u laydown bedding material.

 
Comment by D
2013-03-10 04:29:21

ya Colorado is known for those kind of fast weather changes. if u go u must be prepared for that in advance. sunny 80 degree days turn to rain in 20 min and thats during the summer lol

 
Comment by FrozenPeaFund.com
2013-04-03 14:23:14

I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own blog and was wondering what all is required to get set up? I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a
pretty penny? I’m not very web smart so I’m not 100% certain. Any suggestions or advice would be greatly appreciated. Many thanks

 
Comment by George
2013-05-19 16:04:04

try the rule of thirds. first try to keep the ribs even with the ridgepole. As you are building the shelter put lots of leaves, grasses etc over the ridgepole and under the ribs. Do the same for the sides were the ribs meet the ground. really stuff this full on these 3 points for a warmer shelter. After putting about a 12 inch layer of leaves cover it with small thin branches and then add another foot of debris. Do this 3 times and you will sleep well in temps far colder than 20 degrees. i know this becuase i slept out in 15 degrees in northern Idaho in the winter. i woke up on the morning being too hot and sweaty and got cold when I first went outside.

Comment by Tactical Intelligence
2013-05-21 21:03:05

Good comments George, thanks.

 
 
Comment by Dave
2013-06-03 13:36:50

Any tips on avoiding biting insects, like fire ants. In Texas, even in winter, it can get cold, but the ground doesn’t freeze. If you start stirring the material on the ground, you will find the ants underneath. If you don’t, you will find them later, biting you. My first thought was, “You’ll never get me to lie on the ground in the woods.” So any advice?

 
Comment by Tactical Intelligence
2013-06-03 13:41:51

Hi Dave,

One of the best ways of ridding shelters of insects is through “smudging”. Basically, find a flat stone (or a hollowed-out chunk of wood) and place some hot coals from a fire on it. Then place a handful of green aromatic leaves like cedar, garlic mustard, spruce, sage etc on top of the coals. The hot coals will cause the green leaves to smoke. Insects hate this aromatic smoke and when placed in the shelter will drive them out leaving you with a insect-free evening of sleep.

It helps to block the entrance while the smudger is doing its magic. This will help the smoke more effectively permeate the shelter. Just be careful not to get these hot coals too close to your shelter’s debris so as not to cause a big fire.

Hope that helps!

- Erich

 
Comment by Craig
2013-07-01 17:15:38

Great shelter… But this guy who “invented” it must be one old dude… This has been in Boy Scout handbooks for ages.

 
Comment by joc cu super mario
2013-08-01 05:39:12

I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest
but your blogs really nice, keep it up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back down the road. All the best

 
Comment by margaret anderson
2013-08-25 17:18:38

use pine boughs underneath, then cleverly disguise them with debris!

 
Comment by Larry
2013-09-26 17:10:50

If you have time when you build one of these, it is a good idea to just weave a few branch’s into a door for the front . It is done the same way they weave wattle and daub walls.

 
Comment by Joe Chervenak
2014-03-17 02:18:46

I just wanted to add that before placing the ridge pole if you scraped a trench the same length as you. Then built a fire in it of twigs, leaves anything to warm the ground first. Then after it had burnt out covered it back over with earth. Then build the shelter the stored heat would help make it more bearable on very cold nights. I think what you guys post on here is a great help in building a great knowledge background to have.

 
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